Exam 1 Study Guide
HIST 2070

I. Topic Areas: Early Modern Empires, Columbian Exchange, Global Trade and Economy in the Early Modern Era, Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution, The Enlightenment

II. Lectures:

III. Readings:

IV. STRUCTURE OF THE EXAM: The exam will have two parts, an essay portion and an identifications portion, each worth 50%.

Exam Structure: The exam will consist of two parts, an essay section and an identification section, each worth 50%. You will choose one essay from a selection that will be drawn from the essays below. For the identifications, you will be given a list of ten terms, drawn from the terms below, of which you will choose five for long (paragraph-length) identifications discussing the historical significance of those terms.

Grading Criteria:

V. Essay Questions and Identification Terms:

  1. Essay: Discuss the role of trade in Early Modern Empires. How did trade inspire empire-building, and how did it shape the development of empires? Discuss at least two examples of empires in your essay (Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal, China, Japan).
    Identifications: lateen sail, Vasco de Gama, Silk Road, Janissaries,

  2. Essay: Discuss the Columbian Exchange - how did it reshape global society, primarily in terms of population and demographics?
    Identifications: cane sugar, potato

  3. Compare the spread of the world religions (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) in the 1500s and 1600s, roughly. What factors spurred and enabled the rapid growth of these religions?
    Identifications: Martin Luther, Tibetan Buddhism, Council of Trent, syncretism, Universal Priesthood of Believers, Sikhism

  4. The Scientific Revolution led Europeans to believe that they could both understand and control nature. Explain how.
    Identifications: Ptolemey, Galileo Galilei, On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres, Joanes Kepler, Issac Newton, inductive reasoning

  5. New political ideas and institutions developed world wide in the 1600s and 1700s. Compare the political development of at least two of the following societies in this time period - China, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empires, Safavid Empire, Europe.
    Identification: nation-state, Ottomans, Janissaries, Huang Zongxi, British East India Company, Qing Dyansty, creolization

  6. Compare the economic development of China and India to Western Europe (primarily England) in the period of the early Industrial Revolution (1700s and early 1800s).
    Identifications: Mary Wortley Montagu, high-level equilibrium trap, opium, forest famine, enclosure, James Watt

  7. What were the basic principles of the Enlightenment? Was this primarily a European phenomenon, or was it more strongly global. Explain your answer.
    Identifications: philosophes, social contract, mercantilism, invisible hand, labor theory of wealth, Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, Romanticism, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Napoleon Bonaparte, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, Reign of Terror