Background on Iberian History
I. Roman Period
  1. Iberia most Romanized part of Empire due to heavy colonization
  2.  Gothic invasions of 400s lead to Visigothic kingdom, but unstable
II. Muslim period
  1. Muslims conquer all of Portugal and most of Spain - 711
  2.  Moorish Iberia became center of learning, most advanced part of Europe
  3.  Heir to heritage of Eastern and Western world
  4.  Cordoba attracts scholars of all faiths - Important for Jewish culture
  5.  Iberia marked forever - language, women, family, architecture, machismo
III. Myth of the Reconquista
  1. Discord among Muslims enabled growth of Christian kingdoms
    1. Multiple Christian and Muslim states co-exist in competition and conflict of seven centuries
    2. Steadily the frontier moves south
    3. Portugal takes modern shape in 1253; Spain conquers last Muslim kingdom in 1492
    1.  Leads to national self-image of crusaders for Christianity, particularly in Spain
  2.  Gives us the hidalgo personality
    1. Religious intolerance and fervor
    2.  Suspicion of foreigner
    3.  Respect for soldier rather than farmer
    4. Many of the same institutions - conquest as extension of reconquest
IV. Ferdinand and Isabella
  1. Come to throne in 1474 - create "Spain," sort of.
  2.  Reform government to weaken nobles - shift power to technocrats
  3.  Religion
    1. Isabella known for deep piousness
    2.  Made alliances with conservative elements of Church
      1. she would back sweeping conservative reforms
      2.  in exchange, bishops would give her political support
    3. Patronado
      1.  deal with the Pope
      2.  Isabella would fund building, recruiting, reforms, etc.
      3.  in exchange, she got control over nominations for religious offices
      4.  this system would eventually be translated to New World
    4. All lead to identification of faith with ‘nationality'
      1. to be loyal to the Crown is to be Catholic
      2.  profound implications for the Americas
      3.  ensures religious conflict in Americas, and at home
      4.  Rise of the Inquisition to stamp out heresy, alternate religions
    5. While Portugal will get its own version of the patronado, the church-state relationship will not be as tight
    6. End of multi-religious Spain
      1. Last Muslim stronghold, Grenada, defeated 1492
      2.  Jews expelled the same year
      3.  Some Jews stay -- forced to convert
      4.  Muslims eventually face same choice
      5.  This leads to problem of "New Christians" - more work for Inquisition
  4. Succeeded by Charles V
    1. First Hapsburg ruler of Spain
    2. 2. Actually from "Belgium"
    3.  Far flung empire in Europe
    4.  This ensured the extreme exploitation and relative neglect of Spanish America