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Modernism and Positivism - From Ordem and Progresso to the Porfiriato

I. Major Social and Economic Trends of early and mid-19th century

II. Economic Basis of 19th Century Latin American Liberalism III. Liberal Modernization in late 19th-Cetury Latin America IV. Liberal attacks on communal and corporate property (property owned by the Church, primarily) V. Liberal vision ignored that most lacked knowledge, vision, capital to enter new world VI. Liberal Urban Reforms

VII. Positivism

VIII. Origins IX. Spread of Positivism X. Positivism and Class

XI. The Porfiriato in Mexico - An Example of a Positivist Government and of 19th-century Modernization 

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