Supplemental Terms


  1. Evolution of Slavery and Industrialization
    1. Horace Mann - education reformer
      1. Key figure in developing universal public education
      2. Became head of Massachusetts public schools in 1837
      3. Like others, saw a connection between education and national progress
      4. Promoted teacher training, grades schools, uniform curricula
    2. Prudence Crandall
      1. White education reformer who opened a school for black girls; Canterbury, Mass, 1832
      2.  The school was torched at one point, but continued
    3. Tredegar Iron Company
      1. Iron works in Richmond, VA
      2. switched to largely slave labor in 1847
    4. Wage slavery
      1. Idea that factory workers had not control over what they produced and depended entirely on keeping the job
      2. Factory workers had less independence than people who did piece work or made things themselves for sale.
  2. Era of Reform
    1. Maria Stewart (see pp. 182-83 in the Carson book)
      1. Black abolitionist, advocate for women's rights
      2. promoted religion, sobriety, and self-improvement
      3. Published book and articles in 1830s, worked with William Lloyd Garrison
    2. David Walker’s Appeal
      1. Appeal to the Coloured Citizens (1829)
      2. Written with Maria Stewart
      3. Suggested that God might instruct the slaves to rise up against the slave owners
    3. Lydia Marie Child
      1. Author of An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans called Africans (1833)
      2. Condemned slavery and argued that slavery created prejudice that made it hard for free blacks to find work
      3. Thought blacks were more industrious than white immigrants from Europe
    4. Hurricane Plantation
      1. Owned by Joseph Davis
      2. Davis tried experiments in crop rotation and in improving treatment of slaves
    5. Gag rule
      1. Congress had been receiving large numbers of abolitionist petitions in 1830s
      2. In 1836, Southern Democrats pushed through a bill banning Congress from accepting any more of these petitions
    6. Exposition and Protest
      1. Written by John C. Calhoun, 1828
      2. Promoted the idea of nullification, that states could refuse to enforce federal laws they did not approve of
      3. Specifically southern states could nullify laws they found harmful, such as the national tariff
  3. Manifest Destiny and Expansion
    1. Narcissa Whittman
      1. One of first white women to cross the Rockies
      2. See short bio of her, 374-375 in the Nash book
    2. James Beckworth and George Washington Bush
      1. Examples of African-Americans who participated in westward expansion
      2. See bios in Carson book, 196-97
    3. Gwin Land Law (1851)
      1. Federal law that supposedly validated Mexican and Spanish Land titles
      2. But it made it easier for squatters to challenge those land titles in court
      3. Effectively violated the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo