Jefferson, Adam, and the Development of Political Parties

  1. Develop in 1790s

    1. Washington had been against them, warned against them in Farewell Address

    2. Developed over four  main issues

      1. Sectional split

        1. Hamilton and Federalists strong in North and Northeast

        2. Jeffersonians (anti-Federalists) strong in South and West

      2. Economic split

        1. Federalists had support of commercial and creditor groups

        2. Jeffersonians had agrarian groups

      3. Foreign affairs

        1. Federalists tended to be pro-English

        2. Jeffersonians tended to be pro-French

      4. Constitutional split

        1. Federalists favored strong government, broad interpretation of Constitution

        2. Jeffersonians favored weaker government, strict interpretation of Constitution

  2. Conflicts had begun under Washington

    1. Whiskey Rebellion

      1. As part of Hamilton's program to develop a market economy, Federal government imposed a tax on Whiskey to raise revenue

      2. Western farmers also more generally concerned that government favored Eastern merchants over themselves

      3. This hurt farmers in western Pennsylvania who depended on whiskey trade

      4. Hamilton ignored their protests, and some farmers organized themselves, and proclaimed a rebellion

      5. Hamilton, with Washington, marched with 13,000 troops to Pittsburgh, but no rebellion materialized

    2. Impact of world revolutions

      1. The French Revolution (1789) became increasingly radical

        1. inspired the more radical figures in the U.S. who argued for greater equality and democracy

        2. confirmed Federalist fears of the dangers of mob rule

      2. Haitian Revolution (1791)

        1. initially an anti-colonial war inspired by French Revolution

        2. became a full blown slave revolt, led by Touissant L'Oveture (1798)

        3. Success of Haitian Revolution inspired great fear of slave rebellions in U.S.

          1. inspired harsher slave laws

          2. strengthened Federalists' concerns about full-blown democracy

    3. Citizen Genet

      1. Citizen Edmund Genet, arrived in 1792 representing the revolutionary French government

      2. Inspired many more liberal/radical groups to organize in democratic societies

      3. These clubs popular among small farmers, artisans

      4. Wanted to preserve more radical spirit of 76 against the more elitist, "royalizing" ideas of Hamilton and the Federalists

      5. Washington kicked Genet out for commissioning privateers to attack British ships and lobbying   Congress to ally with France 

  3. John Adams and the decline of the Federalists

    1. Popularity of Federalists declines under John Adams (1797-1801)

    2. Foreign Affairs

      1. French Revolution (beginning 1789) very divisive

      2. Jay Treaty of 1795 (under Washington) had angered anti-Federalists, seen as too submissive to French

      3. 1796 election saw much division over France and England

      4. XYZ Affair - clumsy French effort to bring USA into war against England forces Adams into undeclared maritime war with France

    3. Alien and Sedition Acts - 1798 (passed by Federalists)

      1. Alien Laws gave government power to deport enemy aliens

      2. Sedition Law prohibited published attacks against Federalist government

      3. 20 Republican (Jeffersonian) editors charged, many jailed

    4. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

      1. Assert that states can take back rights they had given to Federal government

      2. Asserts that states can nullify unconstitutional laws

      3. Virginia calls up militia

    5. All this helps lead to swing away from Federalists

  4. "Revolution" of 1800

    1. First openly partisan election

      1. Federalists - Adams and Pinkney

      2. Republicans - Jefferson and Aaron Burr

    2. Republicans soundly defeat Federalists

    3. Thrown into House

      1. Constitution did not yet allow for "tickets" (12th Amendment)

      2. Jefferson and Burr both had 73 electoral votes (VP meant to go to 2nd place)

      3. Burr did nothing - went to 35 ballots in House before Hamilton brokered Jefferson's election

      4. Jefferson never trusted Burr after that

      5. Burr would later kill Hamilton in a duel

  5. Jefferson in power

    1. Jefferson kept in place 80% of what Federalists had done

    2. Did not move to weaken government or ally with France

    3. No great revolution with change in parties

      1. Most presidents have done the same

      2. Indicative of the tendency to moderation in our government